“My musical development took a course similar to that of some friends and colleagues,” he writes, “across piano concerto romanticism, neoclassical academicism, and attempts at eclectic synthesis, and I also took cognizance of the unavoidable proofs of masculinity in serial self-denial. Having arrived at the final station, I decided to get off the already overcrowded train and proceed on foot.” Merging elements of serialism, pastiche, Romanticism, church music, popular and ethnic music with scraps of historical materials, Schnittke creates startling sound vistas. As the composer puts it, “I set down a beautiful chord on paper—and suddenly it rusts.” In essence, the historical musical landmarks of the past are under immediate pressure from the present. Recalling his days in Vienna, Schnittke is particularly fond of metamorphosing sound bites ranging from Haydn to Schubert, and mingling them with rich veins of aggressive dissonances. These stylistic modulations are never arbitrary or random, but describe a progression from chaotic polystylism to heartfelt spirituality.
Alfred Schnittke: Moz-Art a la Haydn
Schnittke’s extraordinary ability to fragment and reassemble diverse components in new and unexpected ways is amply demonstrated in his 1977 Moz-Art à la Haydn, scored for two violin soloists and small ensemble. The historical building blocks, among others, come from an unfinished humorous pantomime Mozart wrote in 1783, of which only the first violin part and some sketches have survived. Also fleetingly mentioned are Mozart’s Symphony No. 40, and Haydn’s Farewell Symphony. The work opens with the performers—seated in total darkness—improvising around the Mozart pantomime material. Once the lights come on, a diminished chord prepares for the introduction of the neoclassical material. Musicologist David Fanning had suggested “Schnittke treats Mozart with the detached bemusement of a visitor from outer space confronting an artifact from a dead civilization.” Recognizable forms and colors are turned into kaleidoscopic hallucinations, forcing the listener to mentally fit all the pieces back together again. At the end of the piece—just as in Hadyn’s Farewell Symphony—each player leaves the stage one by one, with only the conductor staying behind to beat time. Historical classifications have become meaningless, and in live performances, the parody works on both a visual and aural level. Here as elsewhere, Schnittke traverses the musical spectrum—in the words of the New York Times—with “extraordinary virtuosity, wit and flair.”
Moz-Art à la Haydn will be performed by the Kremerata Baltica and Gidon Kremer on 27 September 2015 at the Kronberg Academy Festival.